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孔令健,张 琳,任 杰,等. 高寒矿区环境材料混施下土壤改良及工程应用研究[J]. 煤炭科学技术,2024,52(S1):1−13. doi: 10.12438/cst.2023-1900
引用本文: 孔令健,张 琳,任 杰,等. 高寒矿区环境材料混施下土壤改良及工程应用研究[J]. 煤炭科学技术,2024,52(S1):1−13. doi: 10.12438/cst.2023-1900
KONG Lingjian,ZHANG Lin,REN Jie,et al. Research on soil improvement and engineering application under mixed application of environmental materials in alpine mining areas[J]. Coal Science and Technology,2024,52(S1):1−13. doi: 10.12438/cst.2023-1900
Citation: KONG Lingjian,ZHANG Lin,REN Jie,et al. Research on soil improvement and engineering application under mixed application of environmental materials in alpine mining areas[J]. Coal Science and Technology,2024,52(S1):1−13. doi: 10.12438/cst.2023-1900

高寒矿区环境材料混施下土壤改良及工程应用研究

Research on soil improvement and engineering application under mixed application of environmental materials in alpine mining areas

  • 摘要: 为了解决高寒矿区土地复垦中表层土壤结构差、水土流失和土壤肥力低下等问题,以青海威斯特铜矿为例,通过土壤培养模拟正交设计试验,研究了混施羊板粪(A)、TG改良剂(B)、保水剂(C) 3 种材料对土壤改良的效果,并筛选出一种效果最佳的混合比例。正交极差结果表明:羊板粪对土壤有机质、土壤密度、孔隙度和全盐含量的影响较强,TG改良剂对pH的影响较强,保水剂对田间持水量的影响较强。综合极差分析和主成分分析结果得,处理1(A含量6 g/kg,B含量1.85 g/kg,C含量0.06 g/kg)为改良土壤理化性能最优组合。通过冗余分析得出,羊板粪和TG改良剂对土壤理化性质的差异性解释最好。有机质、土壤田间持水量和孔隙度与环境材料的相关性较强。有机质与羊板粪呈正相关,孔隙度和田间持水量与保水剂、TG改良剂呈正相关。pH、全盐含量和土壤密度与环境材料的相关性较小。孔隙度和田间持水量正相关性强,二者与有机质呈负相关。综合考虑,土壤有机质最优组合 A3B3C2和土壤其他理化性能最优组合 A1B1C1,通过中值法得到高寒矿区土壤基质恢复最优配方结果为A2B2C1.5,即A含量 12 g/kg,B含量 3.7 g/kg,C 含量0.09 g/kg为最优配比。通过工程应用,总结出以“边坡修整、挂椰网/铁丝网、挂生态棒、设置排水沟、客土筛分、客土喷播、铺设保水毯、养护管理及监测”为主的技术应用流程,将试验配方研究和工程应用进行了结合。3种环境材料工程应用结果表明,土壤理化性质和生物量也得到明显改善。此研究为解决青藏高海拔矿区土壤肥力和结构的恢复提供参考,对水土保持产生重要意义。

     

    Abstract: To address the issues of inadequate topsoil structure, soil erosion, and low soil fertility in the reclamation of alpine mining areas. Taking Qinghai West Copper Mine as an example, this study investigates the impact of three materials—sheep manure(A), TG modifier(B), and water retaining agent(C)—on soil improvement using a simulated orthogonal design experiment. The experiment aims to identify the optimal mixing ratio that yields the most significant improvement. Orthogonal polar results revealed that sheep manure had a more pronounced effect on soil organic matter, soil bulk density, porosity, and total salt content. Meanwhile, TG modifier demonstrated a stronger impact on pH, and the water retaining agent exhibited a greater influence on water-holding capacity in the field. The combined results of extreme difference analysis and principal component analysis indicated that treatment 1(A 6 g/kg, B 1.85 g/kg, C 0.06 g/kg) represented the optimal combination of physicochemical properties for soil improvement. Redundancy analyses yielded that sheep manure and TG modifier explained the best variability in soil physicochemical properties. Organic matter, soil field water holding capacity, and porosity exhibited significant correlations with environmental materials. Organic matter displayed a positive correlation with sheep manure, while porosity and field water holding capacity were positively associated with water retaining agent and TG modifier. Conversely, pH, total salt content, and soil bulk density demonstrated weaker correlations with environmental materials. Porosity and field water holding capacity were strongly positively correlated and both were negatively correlated with organic matter. Considering the optimal combination of soil organic matter (A3B3C2) and other soil physicochemical properties (A1B1C1), the optimal formula for soil matrix restoration in alpine mining areas was determined using the median algorithm as A2B2C1.5. This corresponds to 12 g/kg of A (sheep manure), 3.7 g/kg of B (TG modifier), and 0.09 g/kg of C (water retaining agent) as the optimal ratios. The engineering application process, primarily centered around activities such as slope trimming, hanging coconut/barbed wire, hanging ecological rods, setting up drainage ditches, screening of guest soil, spraying of alien soil, laying of water-preserving blankets, and maintenance management and monitoring, was summarized. This summary integrates research on experimental formulations with practical engineering applications. The results of the engineering applications of the three environmental materials illustrate that soil physicochemical properties and biomass were also significantly improved. This study provides a reference to address the restoration of soil fertility and structure in high-altitude mining areas of Qinghai-Tibet, which is of great significance for soil and water conservation.

     

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