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张小平,李梓琛,王 瑜,等. 矿区复垦地人工生态系统碳汇能力与生物多样性功能协同效益解析[J]. 煤炭科学技术,2024,52(7):257−266. doi: 10.12438/cst.2023-1242
引用本文: 张小平,李梓琛,王 瑜,等. 矿区复垦地人工生态系统碳汇能力与生物多样性功能协同效益解析[J]. 煤炭科学技术,2024,52(7):257−266. doi: 10.12438/cst.2023-1242
ZHANG Xiaoping,LI Zichen,WANG Yu,et al. Synergistic benefit analysis of carbon sink capacity and biodiversity function of artificial ecosystems in mining reclamation sites[J]. Coal Science and Technology,2024,52(7):257−266. doi: 10.12438/cst.2023-1242
Citation: ZHANG Xiaoping,LI Zichen,WANG Yu,et al. Synergistic benefit analysis of carbon sink capacity and biodiversity function of artificial ecosystems in mining reclamation sites[J]. Coal Science and Technology,2024,52(7):257−266. doi: 10.12438/cst.2023-1242

矿区复垦地人工生态系统碳汇能力与生物多样性功能协同效益解析

Synergistic benefit analysis of carbon sink capacity and biodiversity function of artificial ecosystems in mining reclamation sites

  • 摘要: 矿区土地复垦是加快生物多样性恢复,推动矿区转型发展,实现碳源向碳汇转化的必然措施。当前关于复垦地人工生态系统碳汇能力和生物多样性恢复的定量评估以及二者协同增效作用的研究仍较少。以准格尔旗黑岱沟露天矿区的各排土场为研究区域,结合样地调查与遥感数据,计算复垦土地植被与土壤的碳汇量,对不同恢复模式下各区域进行灰色关联分析,评估复垦地人工生态系统生物多样性维护功能与碳汇能力协同效益的规律。研究结果表明:①研究区域生物多样性极重要、高度重要、重要、一般和不重要区域的面积占比分别为2.28%、8.29%、15.67%、25.27%、48.50%。复垦区人工生态系统中,乔木+灌木+草本配级的生物多样性指数高于其他恢复模式,主要位于内排土场、北排土场中部,以及东沿帮排土场中部和南部。人工生态系统有林地的生物多样性维护功能的重要值较高,多数区域位于边坡或平台边缘。②植被碳汇量排名前9位的区域均为乔木+灌木+草本的植被类型,且该种植被恢复模式的平均碳汇量(32.224 g/(m2·a))高于其他植被恢复模式。乔木+草本植被恢复模式的平均土壤碳汇量最高(18.164 g/(m2·a)),其次为乔木+灌木+草本恢复模式(16.909 g/(m2·a))。草本植被恢复模式下(主要位于东排土场和北排土场)的植被碳汇量(5.897 g/(m2·a))和土壤碳汇量(6.237 g/(m2·a))均是所有恢复模式中最低的。复垦地碳汇能力整体上呈现出森林生态系统>农田生态系统>草地生态系统的规律。③植被、土壤碳汇量与生物多样性维护功能评估结果的灰色关联指数分别为0.735和0.710,均显著相关。影响因子分析结果表明,随着物种丰富度指数和多样性指数值的增加,植被碳汇量也逐渐增加;随着海拔的升高和复垦年限的增加,土壤碳汇量呈上升趋势。

     

    Abstract: Land reclamation in mining areas is an inevitable measure to accelerate the restoration of biodiversity, promote the transformation and development of mining areas, and realize the transformation of carbon sources into carbon sinks. There are few studies focused on the quantitative assessment of carbon sink capacity and biodiversity restoration of artificial ecosystems and their synergistic effects in reclaimed lands. The dumps in Heidaigou open-pit mining area of Jungar Banner was taken as the research area, and the carbon sinks of vegetation and soil of the reclaimed land were calculated by combining the sample plot survey and remote sensing data. Grey correlation analysis was carried out for each region under different restoration modes to assess the synergy between the biodiversity maintenance function and carbon sequestration capacity of artificial ecosystems of reclaimed land. The results showed that: ①The area proportions of extremely important, highly important, important, average and unimportant biodiversity in the research area were 2.28%, 8.29%, 15.67%, 25.27% and 48.50% respectively. In the artificial ecosystem of reclaimed land, the biodiversity index of trees + shrubs + herbs was higher than other vegetation restoration models, which was mainly located in the inner dump, the middle of the north dump, and the middle and south of the east side dump. The important value of biodiversity maintenance function of forest land in artificial ecosystem was higher than other land use types, and most of them were located on slope or platform edge. ②The top 9 regions in terms of vegetation carbon sink were in trees + shrubs + hers restoration mode, and the average carbon sink of this vegetation restoration model (32.224 g/(m2·a)) was higher than that of other vegetation restoration models. The average soil carbon sink of tree + herbaceous vegetation restoration mode was the highest (18.164 g/(m2·a)), followed by tree + shrub + herbaceous restoration mode (16.909 g/(m2·a)). The vegetation carbon sink (5.897 g/(m2·a)) and soil carbon sink (6.237 g/(m2·a)) under the herbaceous vegetation restoration model (mainly located in the east and north dumps) were the lowest among all restoration models. The carbon sink capacity of reclaimed land was in the trend of forest ecosystem > farmland ecosystem > grassland ecosystem. ③The grey correlation index between vegetation and soil carbon sink and the assessment results of biodiversity maintenance were 0.735 and 0.710, respectively, showing a significant correlation. The vegetation carbon sink increased with the species richness index and diversity index. The increased altitude and the reclamation period led to the greater soil carbon sink.

     

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